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Clarke, Dr. John Henrik. Click to enlarge. Buy in bulk and save. Product Description Dr. Enter your name: optional Enter the code below:. It may be tempting in some parts of Washington to balance the budget to the detriment of foreign aid or to limit U. The United States should not, however, be content to watch from the sidelines. Victoria J. Taylor is a foreign service officer with the U. The views expressed in this article are her own and do not necessarily represent the views of the U. Department of State or the U. Middle East and North Africa. Cook July 29, Women and Women's Rights.
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Vogelstein May 11, Women Around the World. Backgrounder by Jonathan Masters August 12, In Brief by Brad W. Setser August 8, Women and Economic Growth. Skip to main content. Expert Brief CFR scholars provide expert analysis and commentary on international issues. Out with the Old After decades of single party rule, Tunisians are now confronted by a dizzying array of options. The New Jersey brigade was heavily outnumbered.
The warnings to the militia also went out, and they began to form up and march toward the British from as far away as Hopewell, New Jersey. When the British did advance, they were attacked by the militia on the flanks. This drew off significant portions of their forces to protect their supply line and route of travel.
After a day of hot fighting, the British realized they could not easily breakthrough toward the Hobart Gap leading to Morristown, and, after burning the town, retired back to Elizabeth point. The last major battle to take place in New Jersey and the rest of the Northern states during the Revolutionary War was the Battle of Springfield. Baron von Knyphausen , the Hessian general, hoped to invade New Jersey and expected support from the colonists of New Jersey who were tired of the war.
His goal was to secure Hobart Gap , from which he could attack the American headquarters situated in Morristown. On June 23, , the British attacked soldiers and militia under the command of Nathanael Greene. General Greene successfully stopped a two-pronged attack from positions held across the Rahway River. The victory prevented a British attack on Morristown and its military stores.
Nathanael Greene's personal assistant was Thomas Paine. Several small conflicts and skirmishes took place in New Jersey just before and after the Battle of Yorktown , representing the final conflicts of the American Revolution. In October 25, , after formal hostilities between the United States and Great Britain had paused, Bacon and his men murdered 19 men in their sleep, including Patriot militia Captain Andrew Steelman, in what is known as the Long Beach Island Massacre. One Patriot was killed, and four were wounded. Four Loyalists were wounded, including Bacon.
The New Jersey Journal became the second newspaper published in the state. It was edited and printed by Shepard Kollock , who established his press in Chatham during This paper became a catalyst in the revolution. News of events regarding the war came directly to the editor from Washington's headquarters in nearby Morristown to boost the morale of the troops and their families, and as editor, he conducted lively debates about the efforts for independence with those who opposed and supported the cause he championed. Kollock later relocated the paper twice, first to New Brunswick when the military action shifted there, and later in , when he established his last publication location in Elizabeth under the same name.
The Journal ceased publication in In , the first New Jersey State Constitution was drafted. It was written during the period of the Revolutionary War, and was designed to create a basic framework for the state government. The constitution recognized the right of suffrage for women and black men who met certain property requirements.
The New Jersey Constitution of gives the vote to "all inhabitants of this Colony, of full age, who are worth fifty pounds proclamation money. Married women could not own property under the common law. It had been held that this was an accident of hasty drafting: the British were at Staten Island when the constitution was proclaimed. The Constitution declares itself temporary, and it was to be void if there was reconciliation with Great Britain.
Both sides in elections mocked the other for relying on "petticoat electors" and each accused the other of letting unqualified women including married women vote.
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A Federalist legislature passed a voting rights act which applied only to those counties where the Federalists were strong. A Democratic legislature extended it to the entire state. In , as a side-effect of a reconciliation within the Democratic Party, the legislature reinterpreted the constitution which had been an ordinary act of the Provincial Congress to mean universal white male suffrage, with no property requirement.
However, they disenfranchised paupers , to suppress the Irish vote. It had originally convened in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania , but mutinous troops prevented the meeting from taking place there. Princeton became the temporary capital for the newly independent nation through these four months. During the brief stay in Princeton, the Continental Congress was informed of the end of the war by the signing of the Treaty of Paris on September 3, The chief dignitary of the meeting was George Washington , and a portrait was made of Washington during the meeting.
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On December 18, , New Jersey became the third state to ratify the Constitution. New Jersey played a principal role in creating the structure of the new United States Government. When Virginia delegates came up with the Virginia Plan , which called for representation in government proportional to the population of each state, the smaller states refused, fearing that with such a plan they would no longer have a say in government affairs.
William Paterson , a New Jersey statesman, introduced the New Jersey Plan by which one vote would be given to each state, providing equal representation within the legislative body. Under the Great Compromise , both plans were placed into use with two separate bodies in the Congress , with the Senate being modeled after the structure in the New Jersey Plan.
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Main article: History of New Jersey. Main article: United States Declaration of Independence. Main article: New York and New Jersey campaign.
Main article: Fort Lee Historic Park. Main article: Battle of Trenton. Main article: Battle of Princeton.
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Main article: Battle of Millstone. Main article: Battle of Bound Brook. Main article: Battle of Short Hills. Main article: Battle of Monmouth. Main article: Baylor Massacre.
NOTES FOR AN AFRICAN WORLD REVOLUTION: Africans at the Crossroads, by John Henrik Clarke(HARDCOVER)
Main article: Battle of Paulus Hook. Main article: Battle of Connecticut Farms. Main article: Battle of Springfield New Jersey Constitution of Main article: New Jersey State Constitution. Crossroads of the American Revolution. New Jersey. San Diego: Lucent Books, Inc. Retrieved November 23, The Battle of Millstone , accessed March 12, Centennial History of Ocean County.
The American War of Independence - at Sea. New Jersey in the American Revolution.