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Old Man Spider. Andrew Mowere. The Twin Worlds Trilogy. Dominic H. Last Ama Princess. Catherine Banks. April Scott-Goss. It was used by non-Chalcedonians to refer to those who backed the Byzantine Emperor; the Melkites were Greek-speaking city-dwellers living in the west of the Levant and in Egypt , as opposed to the more provincial Syriac- and Coptic-speaking non-Chalcedonians. The Melkite Church was organised into three historic patriarchates — Alexandria and Jerusalem — in union with the Patriarch of Constantinople.
After the Council of Chalcedon, over the ensuing centuries those Churches which rejected this council recognised different patriarchs in Alexandria and Antioch. From , Roman Catholic clergy were based in Damascus and other areas, worked toward a union between Rome and the Orthodox. At that time, the nature of the East-West Schism dated to , was undefined, many of those who continued to worship and work within the Melkite Church became identified as a pro-Western party. Considering this to be a Catholic takeover attempt, Jeremias III of Constantinople imposed a deacon , the Greek monk Sylvester to rule the patriarchate instead of Cyril.
After being ordained a priest bishop, he was given Turkish protection to overthrow Cyril. Sylvester's heavy-handed leadership of the church encouraged many to re-examine the validity of Cyril's claim to the patriarchal throne; the newly elected Pope Benedict XIII recognised the legitimacy of Cyril's claim and recognized him and his followers as being in communion with Rome.
From that point onwards, the Melkite Church was divided between the Greek Orthodox, who continued to be appointed by the authority of the Patriarch of Constantinople until the late 19th century, the Greek Catholics , who recognize the authority of the Pope of Rome. However, it is now only the Catholic group; some Grecian "Ancient Synagogal " priestly rites and hymns have survived to the present, notably in the distinct church services of the Melkite and Greek Orthodox communities of the Hatay Province of Southern Turkey and Lebanon.
Boston : Sophia Press. Mount Lebanon Mount Lebanon is a mountain range in Lebanon.
July, 1982 Second Printing March, 1983 Includes Annex B
It averages above 2, m in elevation; the Mount Lebanon range extends along the entire country for about km, parallel to the Mediterranean coast. Their highest peak is Qurnat as Sawda' , at 3, m; the range receives a substantial amount of precipitation, including snow, which averages around 4 m deep.
Lebanon has been defined by the mountains, which provided protection for the local population. In Lebanon, changes in scenery are related less to geographical distances than to altitudes; the mountains were known for their pine forests. The last remaining old growth groves of the famous Cedar of Lebanon are on the high slopes of Mount Lebanon, in the Cedars of God World Heritage Site ; the Phoenicians used the forests from Mount Lebanon to build their ship fleet and to trade with their Levantine neighbors. The Phoenicians and successor rulers replanted and restocked the range; the name Mount Lebanon traces back to the Semitic root LBN, meaning "white" a reference to the snow-covered mountains.
Mount Lebanon is mentioned in the Old Testament several times. Since the Cedar species known scientifically as Cedrus libani is associated with Mount Lebanon; the Phoenicians used cedar to build ships in which they sailed the Mediterranean, thus they were the first to establish villages in Mount Lebanon and would live from cutting down Cedars and sending them to the coast.
Eusebius records that the Emperor Constantine destroyed a temple of Venus'on the summit of Mount Lebanon. In the late 8th century a group known as the Mardaites settled in North Lebanon following the order of the Byzantine Emperor , they merged with the local population, refusing to leave after the emperor struck a deal with the Muslim Caliph of Damascus. In after the fall of Acre , the last crusader outpost in the Levant , the remnants of the European settlers who succeeded in escaping capture by the Mamelukes , settled in the Northern part of Lebanon and become part of the Maronite society.
In the 9th century AD, tribes from the "Jabal el Summaq" area north of Aleppo in Syria began settling the southern half of the mountain range; these tribes were known as the Tanoukhiyoun and in the 11th century they converted to the Druze faith and ruled the areas of Mount Lebanon stretching from Metn in the north to Jezzine in the south. Throughout the 18th century and into the 19th century more and more Maronites settled in the Druze regions of the Mount.
The Druze viewed these Maronite settlements as a threat to their power in Mount Lebanon and in a series of clashes in the s and s, a miniature civil war erupted in the area resulting in the massacre of thousands of Christians. The Druze won militarily, but not politically, because European powers intervened on behalf of the Maronites and divided Mount Lebanon into two areas. In , the "Mount Lebanon" autonomous district was established within the Ottoman system, under an international guarantee.
Mount Lebanon lent its name to two political designations: a semi-autonomous province in Ottoman Syria that existed since and the central Governorate of modern Lebanon. The Mount Lebanon administrative region emerged in a time of rise of nationalism after the civil war of : France intervened on behalf of the local Christian population and Britain on behalf of the Druze after the massacres, when 10, Christians were killed in clashes with the Druze. Christians formed the majority of the population of Mount Lebanon, with a significant number of Druze.
For decades the Christians pressured the European powers, to award them self determination by extending their small Lebanese territory to what they dubbed " Greater Lebanon ", referring to a geographic unit comprising Mount Lebanon and its coast, the Beqaa Valley to its east. Muslims Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam , a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran , their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts.